This is a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Temperature Management (PTM). If you need more information, or if you need any other support, please visit our contact page.

  1. 1. 1. What are the normothermic temperatures?

    Normothermic temperatures are between 36°C and 37,5°C.

  2. 2. 2. Which patients should have intra-operative temperature monitoring?

    Paediatric, surgery longer than 30 minutes and regional anaesthesia should have intra-operative temperature monitoring. When the core temperature is below 36 °C it is also necessary to have temperature monitoring.

  3. 3. 3. What is the most effective way to prevent patients from getting peri-operative hypothermia?

    Forced air warming is the most effective way to warm patients peri-operatively.

  4. 4. 4. Which site should you use to most accurately assess core body temperature?

    The distal oesophagus is the most accurately part of the body to assess the core body temperature.

  5. 5. 5. Which surgeries have a high hypothermia risk?

    Hypothermia is a problem with all surgeries, even the short surgeries. Aging patients and children are vulnerable patient groups. 

  6. 6. 6. What are the major consequences of hypothermia?

    Consequences of hypothermia are higher Surgical Site Infection (SSI), shivering, more blood loss (leads to more blood transfusions), cardiac events and discomfort of the patient.

  7. 7. 7. What are the two primary causes of heat loss during surgery?

    Convection and radiation are the two primary causes of heat loss during surgery.

  8. 8. 8. What is the major warming source of the human body?

    The major warming source of the human body is a result of metabolic activity.

  9. 9. 9. How come the temperature drops pre-operatively?

    Preoperatively the temperature can drop through cold rooms, long transport time and pre-medication.

  10. 10. 10. What causes heat loss during surgery?

    Heat loss can be caused by cold IV fluids, during anaesthesia and uncovered body parts.

  11. 11. 11. Does hypothermia effect the function of the liver?

    Yes, hypothermia effects the function of the liver, kidneys and blood as well. In fact, hypothermia has effect on all normal body functions.

  12. 12. 12. Which patients are at risk of hypothermia in particular?

    Elderly, children, burn and trauma are patient risks of hypothermia.

  13. 13. 13. When does a patient start shivering?

    In general shivering starts below 36° C.

  14. 14. 14. Which receptors are responsible for triggering the hypothalamus?

    Thermo-receptors are mainly found in the skin and blood and are responsible for triggering the hypothalamus.